Nation-Based Sovereign-Based Government

Treaty 2 Territory

The Treaty 2 Territory Nations hold that the title to the lands and waters within the boundaries of Treaty 2 Territory was established prior to the entering of Treaty 2 and was recognized by the Treaty;

  • that through Treaty, the Anishinaabe (Chippewa) Nation may have consented to the Imperial Crown exercising its sovereignty over a portion of Treaty 2 Territory and that the portion of Treaty 2 Territory over which sovereignty could be exercised consisted of certain lands to be taken up for the purpose of immigration and settlement and for no other purpose, and providing that compensation for the use of the lands taken up would be provided to the Treaty 2 First Nations by the Crown;
  • and further providing that prior to the Crown’s taking up of the lands, stipulated areas of land would be reserved for the exclusive use and benefit for agricultural, residential and other purposes (Indian Act created reserves not the treaty);
  • and further providing that the remainder of the lands within the boundaries of Treaty 2 territory would remain for the collective sustenance and livelihood of the Anishinaabe (Chippewa) Nation, subject to such further arrangements and agreements as might be made by the parties to Treaty 2 Territory.


The Anishinaabe territory is much larger and extends beyond our current territory. Today Treaty No.2 territory extends north of Treaty No.1 territory, along the east shore of Lake Winnipeg to Berens River, across to the Dauphin River along with water ways up to the northern tip of Waterhen Lake, across Lake Winnipegosis north of Duck Bay, then 2 miles west of the the source of the Shell River in Duck Mountain along the Assiniboine to Fort Ellice, 2 miles west, then to the Moose Mountain across the international border up to Brandon rapids located 2 miles east then to white mud river across over to the Drunken River, then to Winnipeg River where it started.

The territory includes 8,676,828 hectares of land (21,440,909 acres). Included within our territory are many of our mountains and waters which include; Duck Mountain, Hecla/ Grindstone Moose Mountain, Riding Mountain, Turtle Mountain and many lakes such as Dauphin Lake, Clear Lake, Childs Lake, south basin of Lake Winnipegosis and Lake Winnipeg and north basin of Lake Manitoba.

No other Treaty area in Canada has had this mixture of complicated historical circumstances which raise questions as to “who is Treaty 2 and who isn’t.” 

Beginning at the mouth of Winnipeg River, on the north line of the lands aggrieved by said treaty;

thence running along the eastern shore of Lake Winnipeg northwardly as far as the mouth of Beren’s River;

thence across said lake to its western shore, at the north bank of the mouth of the Little Saskatchewan or Dauphin River;

thence up said stream and along the northern and western shores thereof, and of St. Martin’s Lake,

and along the north bank of the stream flowing into St. Martin’s Lake from Lake Manitoba by the general course of such stream to such last-mentioned lake;

thence by the eastern and northern shores of Lake Manitoba to the mouth of the Waterhen River;

thence by the eastern and northern shores of said river up stream to the northernmost extremity of a small lake known as Waterhen Lake;

thence in a line due west to and across lake Winnepegosis;

thence in a straight line to the most northerly waters forming the source of the Shell River;

thence to a point west of the same two miles distant from the river, measuring at right angles thereto;

thence by a line parallel with the Shell River to its mouth, and
thence crossing the Assiniboine River and running parallel thereto and two miles distant therefrom,

and to the westward thereof, to a point opposite Fort Ellice;

thence in a south-westwardly course to the north-western point of the Moose Mountains;

thence by a line due south to the United States frontier;

thence by the frontier eastwardly to the westward line of said tract aggrieved by treaty as aforesaid;

thence bounded thereby by the west, northwest and north lines of said tract, to the place of beginning, at the mouth of Winnipeg River.


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